Spain: Political classification: The Spanish state

Present-day Spain as we know it today was for the first time a political entity during Roman times. Although as part of the great Roman empire. A Spaniard has never felt like a Spaniard, his affection goes out to his local community. How did the formation of the Spanish state ultimately come about? An overview:

Christian and Moorish

At the time of the Moorish domination, from 711-1492, Spain was not only divided into a Christian and Moorish part, but these parts were then subdivided into smaller kingdoms.

A royal family

Around 1500 Catholic "Spanish" Kings, Fernando and Isabel, already have their own
brought different empires under the same royal house. However, there was absolutely no question of a Spanish unit.

Administrative centralization

Only since the 18th Century did the administrative centralization in Spain set up cautiously, with completion in the 19th Century.


The administrative centralization in the 18th and 19th Century in Spain was of a high bureaucratic level. The remote areas in Spain have received very little from this administrative centralization. And there are still some remote areas to be found in Spain!

Cultural awareness

During the administrative centralization process in Spain, cultural awareness emerged almost simultaneously in the different and remote areas.

Political awareness

As soon as the cultural awareness in the different and remote areas revealed itself, a certain political awareness also started to arise in the sphere of life.

Second Republic

The process of administrative centralization and cultural awareness and political awareness in the different and remote areas of Spain continued until the Second Republic (1931-1939).

Autonomous rights and a reason for the Spanish Civil War

During the Second Republic, the state officially gave autonomous rights to only 2 areas: Cataluña and the Basque Country. This was one of the reasons why the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, with the exception of a lot of other political trams.

Franco rule, centralist dictatorship 1939-1975

Franco's rule in Spain was a right-wing, authoritarian and centralist dictatorship from 1939-1975. Franco tried to create a national Spanish unity with violence and with a very hard hand.

Spanish national unity

Despite the violence of the regime of Franco, the Spanish national unity was very far away for almost every Spaniard. Still in a political sense, not in a cultural sense, still in an economic sense.

Common cause

Apart from exceptions, a Spaniard is actually unable to combine his efforts for the common cause (read: Spain).

Local community (Regionalism)

These days a Spaniard really feels like a Spaniard. But the greatest involvement of a Spaniard goes first to his local community, then to the region and then to the country of Spain itself.

Madrid 11-3 (11-M) attacks

Shortly after the attacks in Madrid (11-M) it was one of the most rare occasions in the life of an average Spaniard that he actually felt like a Spaniard, even in the far-off Spanish areas. That dark day was a rare feeling of Spanish unity among the entire Spanish people.

Remote areas

For centuries, many different regions in Spain have been very difficult to reach. Mostly due to natural conditions. For centuries people have been dependent on themselves and the local community. They have been attuned to the local community for centuries. This is probably the reason why there is a lack of Spanish national sense of unity.

After the Franco dictatorship: democratic form of government

After the Franco dictatorship, every effort was made to return to the democratic form of government.

Constitution of 1978

In order to make everyone in all Spanish areas and in all remote Spanish areas stand out as much as possible, the new form of administration in Spain had both centrifugal and centripetal characteristics. All this was laid down in the Spanish Constitution of 1978. the "Constitucion de 1978" of Spain.

Video: Spanish broadcaster shows first bullfighting in years, TVE interview (February 2020).

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